|CREDIT: Rats have feelings too|
Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 66-78, January 2013
Topical Combinations Aimed at Treating Microvascular Dysfunction Reduce Allodynia in Rat Models of CRPS-I and Neuropathic Pain
J. Vaigunda Ragavendran, André Laferrière, Wen Hua Xiao, Gary J. Bennett, Satyanarayana S.V. Padi, Ji Zhang, Terence J. Coderre*
*Contact for reprint requests
Growing evidence indicates that various chronic pain syndromes exhibit tissue abnormalities caused by microvasculature dysfunction in the blood vessels of skin, muscle, or nerve. We tested whether topical combinations aimed at improving microvascular function would relieve allodynia in animal models of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that topical administration of either α2-adrenergic (α2A) receptor agonists or nitric oxide (NO) donors combined with either phosphodiesterase (PDE) or phosphatidic acid (PA) inhibitors would effectively reduce allodynia in these animal models of chronic pain. Single topical agents produced significant dose-dependent antiallodynic effects in rats with chronic postischemia pain, and the antiallodynic dose-response curves of PDE and PA inhibitors were shifted 2.5- to 10-fold leftward when combined with nonanalgesic doses of α2A receptor agonists or NO donors. Topical combinations also produced significant antiallodynic effects in rats with sciatic nerve injury, painful diabetic neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. These effects were shown to be produced by a local action, lasted up to 6 hours after acute treatment, and did not produce tolerance over 15 days of chronic daily dosing. The present results support the hypothesis that allodynia in animal models of CRPS-I and neuropathic pain is effectively relieved by topical combinations of α2A or NO donors with PDE or PA inhibitors. This suggests that topical treatments aimed at improving microvascular function may reduce allodynia in patients with CRPS-I and neuropathic pain.
This article presents the synergistic antiallodynic effects of combinations of α2A or NO donors with PDE or PA inhibitors in animal models of CRPS-I and neuropathic pain. The data suggest that effective clinical treatment of chronic neuropathic pain may be achieved by therapies that alleviate microvascular dysfunction in affected areas.
NOTE: It may seem odd to publish the references without providing access to the article text, but many is the time I have found helpful background reading among footnoted/referenced sources. It takes some digging, but can pay off in greater understanding and finding your own "leads" within your particular research interests.